Health and Disease Information
African Swine Fever
*For information on the new U.S. Swine Health Improvement Plan (U.S. SHIP) click HERE.
African Swine Fever (ASF) is a reportable, highly contagious and deadly viral disease. It affects both domestic and feral swine of all ages. ASF is not a human health threat and cannot be transmitted to humans or other animals. It is also not a food safety threat. ASF is found in countries all over the world, first discovered in Kenya in 1921 and is endemic in may parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, it has spread through China, Mongolia and Vietnam as well as parts of the European Union. ASF has never been detected in the United States. The federal and state government, industry stakeholders and producers are working together to prevent the entry of ASF, protect our swine herds and the food supply.
Anyone working with pigs should familiarize themselves with symtoms associated with ASF, a high consequece foreign animal disease:
- High fever
- Decreased appetite and weakness
- Red blotchy skin or skin lesions
- Diarhhea and vomiting
- Coughing and difficulty breathing
- Pregnancy loss, still births
Disease images can be found on the Center for Food Security and Public Health Webpage about ASF. Immediately report animals with any of these signs to state or federal animal health officials. For more information on ASF, visit the USDA APHIS website on African Swine Fever.
Foot and Mouth Disease
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a reportable, severe and highly contagious viral disease. This virus causes illness in cows, pigs, goats, sheep, deer, and other cloven hooved animals. Horses, dogs and cats are not affected. FMD is not a public health or food safety threat, and is not related to hand, foot and mouth disease, a childhood disease caused by a different virus. FMD has been eradicated in the U.S. since 1929 but many countries continue to battle FMD. The Illinois Department of Agriculture continues to work with the federal goverment, industry stakeholders and producers to prevent re-entry.
Anyone working with these species should familiarize themselves with the symptoms associated with FMD:
- Vesicles on the tongue, lips, in/around the mouth, on the mammary glands or hooves
- Difficulty walking/lameness
- Decreased weight gain
- Decreased milk production
Disease images can be found on the Center for Food Security and Public Health Webpage about FMD. Immediately report animals with any of these signs to state or federal animal health officials. For more information on FMD, visit the USDA APHIS website on Foot and Mouth Disease.
Senecavirus A (Seneca Valley Virus)
Senecavirus A (SVA) is a picornavirus discovered incndentally in 2002, but suspected to be circulating in the U.S. swine population since 1988. While not a foreign animal disease, the significance of SVA is the clinical resemblance of the virus to other vesicular reportable foreign animal diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VES). Industry biosecurity, recognition and reporting of lesions is the first line defense against transmission as there is no national surveillance program. Read this FACT SHEET for more information.
Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's Disease)
In 2002, Illinois achieved pseudorabies free status. Pseudorabies is a viral disease that affects animals' immune systems, respiratory functions and reproductive abilities. Although usually associated with swine, pseudorabies can infect virtually all mammals except humans and tailless apes. The disease is spread through direct contact with an infected animal. Preventive vaccinations are available, but no cure exists for the sometimes fatal disease.
State and federal veterinarians perform routine testing and trace the origin of animals testing positive for pseudorabies at slaughter. When a herd is determined to be infected, a veterinarian visits the herd owner to develop an eradication plan. The plan includes recommendations for herd management and movement of animals, biosecurity measures, and vaccination and testing schedules. The veterinarian continues to work with the owner until the disease is eliminated from the herd. State veterinarians also test swine in areas surrounding quarantined herds to locate additional infected animals. For more information, to include disease images visit the Center for Food Security and Public Health Webpage on Pseudorabies.
See a list of all reportable diseases of livestock at the link above.
Foreign Animal Disease Response
Detection, containment and eradication of a foreign animal diesease will rely upon effective state and federal coordination and collaboration with the industry stakeholders and producers in Illinois and across our state boders. Early detection is critical to a successful response, therefore suspected foreign animal diseases should be immediatley reported to your herd veterinarian, the Stave Veterinarian or the USDA Area Veterinarian In Charge.
Illinois Department of Agriculture at (217) 784-4944 or the USDA APHIS VS Illinois District Office at (217) 547-6030.
The primary goal is to sucessfully eradicate the disease as quickly as possible. Illinois continues to work with the industry, producers and partner agencies to develop plans to respond to foreign animal diseases. Each diseases has unique response critical activities which include:
- Identification of infected and at risk premises through epidemiologic tracing and investigation
- Containment of disease
- Depopulation of infected herds
- Environmentally sound disposal of carcasses and other infected products
- Cleaning and disinfection using environmetnally safe products
- Timely dissemination of public information
- Implementation of continuity of business plans (enhanced biosecurity, testing and permitted movement)
Biosecurity is the process of protecting farms and livestock from infectious disease. Producers should create and carry out biosecurity plans specific to their farm and livestock. Diseases can be introduced in many ways and a good plan addresses all known routes of disease transmission. A biosecurity plan should outline control points to maintain a "clean" and "dirty" line between the farm and the external environment . For general information on biosecurity please read the General Biosecurity Guidelines Flyer (Coming Soon).
Secure Pork Supply Plans
- Limit exposure of their livestock to infection though enhanced biosecurity
- Move animals under a movement permit issued by regulatory officials
- Maintain business continuity during a foreign animal disease outbreak
How to Participate in Illinois
Producers are encouraged to develop Enhanced Biosecurity Plans which align with the goals and objectives of the National Secure Pork Supply Plan. Development of these plans prior to an animal disease event is voluntary and meant to enhance the speed and efficiency of movement of animals and animal products into and out of a Control Area during an animal disease emergency/foreign animal disease. It is intended to be a component of the requirements necessary to obtain a permit.
In an effort to integrate the foundational elements of the National plan, the Bureau of Animal Health and Welfare and Stave Veterinarian have developed the following three documents to assist producers in completing thier site specific enhanced biosecurity plan with their herd veterinarian:
This document walks the producer and herd veterinarian through the Secure Pork Supply Plan in eight simple steps. It is simply a guide and is not required to be used to complete your plan.
- Familiarization with the Secure Pork Supply website
- Premises validation
- Locate and compile records
- Enhanced Biosecurity Part 1 - Introduction to the template
- Enhanced Biosecurity Part 2 - Create and label a premises map
- Enhanced Biosecurity Part 3 - Biosecurity protocols
- Complete the Illinois Biosecurity Checklist
- Foreign Animal Disease Training and Response
This is a word document template that can be used to draft your site specific Biosecurity Manual for the Secure Pork Supply Plan. You can also find a similar template on the Secure Pork Supply Website. This can be located by going to the "producer" tab, then clicking on "biosecurity". Click HERE to be taken directly to the page.
Once your site sepcific biosecurity plan is complete, your biosecurity manager and herd veterinarian will sign and date this checklist. It is the responsiblity of the producer to maintain the plan, checklist, supporting documents and records at their farm. The signed checklist may be forwarded prior to a foreign animal disease to the Bureau of Animal Health and Welfare at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Traceability and Animal Identification
- Go to the page above to obtain the form to register your livestock premises or to find information on animal identification requirements
- This site allows producers to validate their premises identification number and print barcode labels
- Bar code labels can be used on all diagnostic sample submissions
- You must know your premises identification number (PIN) to validate your premises on this site
Swine Entry Requirements
Swine Production Health Plans (Coming Soon)